不同吸湿官能团对高分子调湿材料吸湿和放湿性能的影响

来源期刊:中南大学学报(自然科学版)2011年第1期

论文作者:李鑫 李慧玲 冯伟洪 卢其明 夏启斌

文章页码:28 - 32

关键词:吸湿官能团;调湿材料;吸放湿性能;高吸水树脂

Key words:hygroscopicity groups; humidity control materials; moisture absorption/release properties; superabsorbent

摘    要:以甲基纤维素、甲基丙烯酸甲酯、甲基丙烯酸、丙烯酰胺及甲基丙烯磺酸钠等合成具有不同官能团的湿度控制材料,通过间歇式吸附/脱附进行吸湿动力学实验和恒温脱附实验;采用TG-DTA和FTIR表征改性复合材料的热稳定性及其结构。实验结果表明:CaCl2改性可以明显提高高分子复合调湿材料的吸湿性能,其吸湿量随单体所含亲水基团的极性的增强而增加;含强极性的离子基团(—COOH和— )高分子调湿材料的吸湿能力明显大于含非离子基团(—CONH2,—OH及—COOCH3)材料的吸湿能力,尤其是CaCl2改性聚甲基丙烯酸及甲基丙烯磺酸钠材料在相对湿度为100%的最大湿容量可高达2 g/g,而含非离子性基团(—CONH2,—OH及—COOCH3)弱极性基团的复合材料则比较容易脱附,CaCl2改性聚甲基丙烯酸甲酯材料在80 ℃于20 min内可以脱附80%吸附水,且所有材料在300 ℃以下具有良好的热稳定性。

Abstract: Composite humidity control materials were synthesised by methyl cellulose, methyl methacrylate, acrylic amide, methyl acrylic acid and sodium methyl allyl sulfonate as a graft copolymerization of raw materials, and CaCl2 were added into the materials to improve the moisture absorption and desorption performance,and then kinetic experiments of moisture absorption on the humidity-controlling composite materials were carried out with the help of batch adsorption experiment. The thermal decomposition temperature and structure of humidity-controlling composite material were estimated separately by means of TG-DTA and FTIR, and the effects of the hygroscopicity groups on the moisture absorption/release of humidity-controlling composite material were discussed. The results show that the modification by CaCl2 greatly improved the hygroscopic capacity of the products, and which increases with the increase of the polarity of water affinity groups in the composite materials. The hygroscopic capacity of composite materials containing the ionic groups (—COOH and —SO3-) with strong polarity are better than those of composite materials containing the nonionic groups (—CONH2, —OH and —COOCH3) with low polarity, and the hygroscopic capacity of the polymer humidity control materials containing methyl acrylic acid or sodium methyl allyl sulfonate can reach the maximum value of 2 g/g at relative humidity of 100%. But the composite materials containing the weak polarity groups have greater desorption rates, the humidity control materials containing methyl methacrylate can desorb 80% of the water sorpted amounts in 20 min at 80 ℃. And all the composite materials have good thermal stability below 300 ℃.

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